Background: Screening of diabetic retinopathy (DR) reduces blindness by early identification of retinopathy. This study compares DR grades derived from a two-field imaging protocol from two imaging platforms, one providing a single 60-degree horizontal field of view (FOV) and the other, a standard 45-degree FOV.
Methods: Cross-sectional study which included 1257 diabetic patients aged ≥18 years attending their DR screening visit in the English National Diabetic Eye Screening Programme (NDESP). Patients with maculopathy (M1), preproliferative (R2) or proliferative DR (R3) were referred to an ophthalmologist. Patients with ungradable images (U) are examined in a slit-lamp biomicroscopy clinic. Image acquisition under mydriasis of two images per eye was carried out with the EIDON and with standard fundus cameras. Evaluation was performed by masked graders.
Results: Agreement after consensus with kappa statistic was 0.89 (quadratic weights (95% CI 0.87 to 0.92)) for NDESP severity grade, 0.88 (quadratic weights (95% CI 0.82 to 0.94)) for referable disease and 0.92 (linear weights (95% CI 0.88 to 0.95)) for maculopathy. The EIDON detected clinically relevant DR features outside the 45-degree fields in two patients (0.16%): one with intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMAs) and one with neovascularisation. In eight patients (0.64%), the EIDON allowed DR feature visualisation inside the 45-degree fields that were not identified in the NDESP images: three patients (0.24%) with IRMA and five patients (0.40%) with maculopathy. The rates of ungradable encounters were 12 (0.95%) and 13 (1.03%) with the EIDON and NDESP images, respectively.
Conclusion: The EIDON identifies a small number of additional patients with referable disease which are not detected with standard imaging. This is due to the EIDON finding disease outside the standard FOV and greater clarity finding disease within the standard FOV.