Publisher: Optom Vis Sci. 2020 Feb;97(2):128-133.

Authors: Nakakura, Shunsuke MD, PhD; Mori, Etsuko; Fujio, Yuk; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Matsuya, Kanae; Kobayashi, Yui; Oogi, Satomi; Shiraishi, Miku; Tabuchi, Hitoshi MD, PhD; Asaoka, Ryo MD, PhD; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki MD, PhD

Effect of Manual Upper Eyelid Elevation on Intraocular Pressure Measurement by Four Different Tonometers


Significance: This study is the first to show that the manual upper eyelid elevation (manual UEE) that is commonly used to prevent disruption of the IOP measurement due to blinking or upper eyelid contact with the tip of the tonometer does not affect the IOP values.

Purpose: We investigated whether manual UEE affects the IOP readings using three rebound tonometers (Icare TA01i, Icare PRO, and Icare ic100) and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT).

Methods: One eye was measured for 101 patients (56 eyes of primary open-angle glaucoma patients and 45 healthy subjects). The IOPs were measured without and with manual UEE. Each IOP was measured twice; the measurement order using the tonometers was randomly selected. In addition, palpebral fissure height (distance between the upper and lower eyelids) was measured.

Results: The IOPs without manual UEE were 12.1 ± 2.9, 13.3 ± 2.7, 11.7 ± 2.9, and 16.0 ± 3.2 mmHg (Icare TA01i, Icare PRO, Icare ic100, and GAT), and those with manual UEE were 12.3 ± 3.0, 13.3 ± 2.8, 11.7 ± 2.9, and 16.0 ± 3.3, respectively. No significant difference was found between the IOP without and with manual UEE (IOP difference; all, P > .50; paired t test). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that palpebral fissure height did not affect IOP difference for any of the tonometers.

Conclusions: Simple manual UEE when measuring the IOP has little effect on the IOP obtained using all current rebound tonometers and GAT.